Fairmount Pediatrics
and Adolescent Medicine


Probiotics and Your Child’s Health

What are probiotics?
What do they do?
How do they work?
Are probiotics a sure thing?
Are probiotics safe to use?
What about side effects?
If I want to give probiotics to my child, which ones should I give and how much?
What if my child isn’t sick, but I want to promote health with probiotics?

Tell me more about the studies.

Viral Diarrhea:
Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
Peptic Ulcer disease with Helicobacter Pylori:
Respiratory infections:
Bacterial vaginosis and UTI in adult women:

References: Cabana MD, Shane AL, Chao C, et al. Probiotics in primary care pediatrics. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2006 Jun; 45(5):405-10. Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, et al. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003 Oct; 16(4):658-72. Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? Am J Clin Nutr 2006 Jun; 83(6):1256-64; quiz 1446-7. Reid G The potential role of probiotics in pediatric urology. J Urol 2002 Oct; 168(4 Pt 1):1512-7. Johnston BC, Supina AL, Ospina M, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (2):CD004827. Jun-Song Lina,1, Yi-Han Chiub,d,1, Nien-Tsung Linc, Chia-Hsiang Chua, Kuo-Chin Huangb,Kuang-Wen Liaob, Kou-Cheng Pengd ,Different effects of probiotic species/strains on infections in preschool children: A double-blind, randomized, controlled study, , Vaccine 27 (2009) 1073–1079 Michael de Vresea, Petra Winklera, Peter Rautenbergb, Timm Harderc, Christian Noahb, Christiane Lauea, d, Stephan Otte, Jochen Hampee, Stefan Schreibere, Knut Hellerf and Jürgen Schrezenmeira, Probiotic bacteria reduced duration and severity but not the incidence of common cold episodes in a double blind, randomized, controlled trial , Vaccine, Volume 24, Issues 44-46, 10 November 2006, Pages 6670-6674 Helicobacter pylori therapy in children: overview and challenges.Chiesa C, Pacifico L, Anania C, Poggiogalle E, Chiarelli F, Osborn JF. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010 Apr-Jun;23(2):405-16. Review. Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) in infants with functional chronic constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.Coccorullo P, Strisciuglio C, Martinelli M, Miele E, Greco L, Staiano A.J Pediatr. 2010 Oct;157(4):598-602. Epub 2010 Jun 12. Comparison between killed and living probiotic usage versus placebo for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in neonates.Awad H, Mokhtar H, Imam SS, Gad GI, Hafez H, Aboushady N.Pak J Biol Sci. 2010 Mar 15;13(6):253-62 Updated meta-analysis of probiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.Deshpande G, Rao S, Patole S, Bulsara M. Pediatrics. 2010 May;125(5):921-30. Epub 2010 Apr 19. Update on the role of probiotics in the therapy of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.Guandalini S. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2010 Jan;6(1):47-54. Review. Probiotics: preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Jones K.J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2010 Apr;15(2):160-2. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children.Martens U, Enck P, Zieseniss E.Ger Med Sci. 2010 Mar 2;8:Doc07. Role of Lactobacillus in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a meta-analysis.Kale-Pradhan PB, Jassal HK, Wilhelm SM. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Feb;30(2):119-26. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials: probiotics for functional constipation.Chmielewska A, Szajewska H. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan 7;16(1):69-75. Review. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdović S, Szajewska H, Misak Z, Kolacek S. Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):312-6. Epub 2009 Nov 5. Hung-Chih Lin, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Hsiu-Lin Chen, Mei-Yung Chung, Jen-Fu Hsu, Rey-in Lien, Lon-Yen Tsao, Chao-Huei Chen, and Bai-Horng Su Oral Probiotics Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial Pediatrics, Oct 2008; 122: 693 – 700. Girish Deshpande, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole, and Max Bulsara Updated Meta-analysis of Probiotics for Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Neonates Pediatrics, May 2010; 125: 921 – 930.